Spider Silk Polyamide Polymers Applications In Self Assembly Nanotechnology, Biosensors, Vaccine Delivery, Synthetic Biology, Brain Computer Interface
Image: Researchers create biosensor by turning spider silk into optical fiber
In my previous post, I described Darkfield Microscopy of environmental spider silk. The reason why I was interested to do this, is because Clifford Carnicom and I found that the chemical components of the rubbery clots from deceased C19 injected people as well as in C19 unvaccinated are made of polyamide proteins. These were the findings of the analysis:
Polyamides occur both naturally and artificially - polyamides are proteins such as wool and silk. Artificially made polyamides are nylons.
I had shown how in 2002 spider silk proteins were made by the biotechnology company Nexia in conjunction with the US Army Soldier Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM). It was called BioSteel® - made via genetic engineering through proprietary transgenic goat technology and to optimize spinning processes to create a diversity of spider silks with specific properties.
In the last two decades, spider silk proteins have had vast applications, for example biological sensors:
Researchers have harnessed the light-guiding properties of spider silk to develop a sensor that can detect and measure small changes in the refractive index of a biological solution, including glucose and other types of sugar solutions. The new light-based sensor might one day be useful for measuring blood sugar and other biochemical analytes.
These proteins have been used with nanoparticles:
Such knowledge is essential for understanding the innate properties of spider silk as it provides insight into the sophisticated assembly processes of silk proteins into the distinct polymers as a basis for novel products. In this context, we describe the development of spider silk-based hybrids using both natural and bioengineered spider silk proteins blended with inorganic nanoparticles.
Spider silk, one of the most incredible natural hierarchically ordered materials, possesses outstanding material properties, namely high toughness (about three times higher than Kevlar toughness), high extensibility (30% elongation to fracture) equivalent to rubber elongation, and biocompatibility.
This approach generates opportunities for innovative material applications in the fields of energy and sustainability, medicine, and nano biomedical technology. It is therefore unsurprising that spider silk is considered one of the most promising materials for industrial applications. Silk is also attractive in optics and photonics , and tissue regeneration. Additionally, the mild conditions of its biosynthesis imply that the fabrication of innovative functional silk-based smart materials would be an eco-friendly process with minimal negative ecological impact.
Bacteria have been programmed via plasmids to produce spider silk proteins:
Unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and yeast, have been investigated as host systems for recombinant silks. A gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium E. coli is a well-established host for industrial scale production of proteins. Therefore, the majority of recombinant spider silks have been produced in E. coli
Spider silk has been used with Graphene oxide and other metal nanoparticles to create many biotechnological applications, including biosensors, micro techological devices, nanofibers for energy harvesting, bone and tissue engineering:
There is a database of all the spiders that produce silk that is stronger than steel. When we talk about tissue engineering and super soldier development these materials are ideal for bio mimicry, yet terrifying consequences. Imagine a Cyborg with tissue the strength of steel.
Now a new global study that has cataloged web silk properties of almost 1100 spiders hopes to provide a launchpad for the design of future biomaterials that emulate this wonder of nature. Suggested uses have included a lightweight material to use in bulletproof vests, a flexible building material, biodegradable bottles, or as a non-toxic biomaterial in regenerative medicine that can be used as a kind of scaffold to grow and repair damaged nerves or tissues.
The spider silk fibrills organize just like Amyloid or Prions. I have discussed in this article that much of what we see can be Amyloid proteins used for nanotechnology. Spider silk proteins self assemble the same way:
Everybody Talks About Amyloid Or Prions In Relation To C19 Bioweapons. Review Of How Self Assembly Amyloid Hydrogels & Prion Peptides Are Used For Nanotechnology Devices & Biosensor Applications. Everybody Talks About Amyloid Or Prions In Relation To C19 Bioweapons. Review Of How Self Assembly Amyloid Hydrogels & Prion Peptides Are Used For Nanotechnology Devices & Biosensor Applications.
Here you can see what is described in the manufacturing of these fibers: - spindroin is the spider silk protein. B sheet formation is how Amyloid grows.
In this study, we use a microfluidic device to create continuous fibers based on recombinant MaSp2 spidroin. The strategy incorporates ion-induced liquid-liquid phase separation, pH-driven fibrillation, and shear-dependent induction of β-sheet formation. We find that a threshold shear stress of approximately 72 Pa is required for fiber formation, and that β-sheet formation is dependent on the presence of polyalanine blocks in the repetitive sequence.
Studies show spider silk and amyloid fibrils are the same. So if we are inhaling spider silk sprayed on us via geoengineering and C19 vaccinated and unvaccinated people are developing rubber clots that look like amyloid - and both silk and the rubbery clots are made from polyamides - is there a connection?
Although spider silks have been studied for decades, the assembly properties of the underlying silk proteins have still not been unravelled. Previously, the detection of amyloid-like nanofibrils in the spider's silk gland suggested their involvement in the assembly process. Recombinantly produced spider silk also self-assembles into nanofibrils. In order to investigate the structural properties of such silk nanofibrils in more detail, they have been compared to amyloid-like fibrils to highlight structural similarities.
I and others started seeing in the blood these round micellar spheres that would grow from a nano site to ever larger structures.
Image: C19 unvaccinated blood. Spherical micelles grow hydrogel filaments. Many other smaller size micelles seen within the larger sphere.
This is exactly what is described with silk growth patterns:
This theory suggests that silk protein spontaneously forms spherical micelle-like structures at high protein concentrations and high viscosities. These micelles are then further spun into micronscale silk fibroin fiber. We observed that a phase rearrangement occurs inside the microscale spherical structures, accompanied by the appearance of nanoscale spherical assemblies. In order to clearly delineate the different types of spherical organization of the silk protein in the different assembly stages, we classify these structures as compartments: the micron-scale spherical structures as microcompartments, and the nanoscale spherical assemblies as nanocompartments. Our structural analysis reveals that protein confined in microcompartments preserves its native secondary structure (initial secondary structure of the protein when stored inside the silk gland), as postulated by the micelle theory.
Spider silk can mimic neurons:
Neurons exhibit excellent signal transmission capacity, which inspire artificial neuron materials for applications in the field of wearable electronics and soft robotics. In addition, the neuron fibers exhibit good mechanical robustness by sticking to the organs, which currently has rarely been studied…The PrDA artificial spider silk would shed light on the design of new generation of artificial neuron materials, bio-electrodes, and artificial synapses.
It is also a much celebrated vaccine delivery system that is rapidly expanding:
We thus demonstrate the efficacy of a new vaccine strategy using a protein-based all-in-one vaccination system, where spider silk particles serve as carriers with an incorporated peptide antigen. Our study further suggests that engineered spider silk-based vaccines are extremely stable, easy to manufacture, and readily customizable.
A new kind of vaccine based on spider silk By successfully encapsulating a vaccine into a spider silk microparticle, Swiss and German researchers have discovered a novel technique that will help fight cancer and certain infectious diseases.
A virtually indestructible capsule
Scientists used synthetic spider silk biopolymers -- a lightweight, biocompatible, non-toxic material that is highly resistant to degradation from light and heat. "We recreated this special silk in the lab to insert a peptide with vaccine properties," explains Thomas Scheibel, a world specialist of spider silk from the University of Bayreuth who participated in the study. "The resulting protein chains are then salted out to form injectable microparticles."
Of course we have the connection of synthetic biology fusing with technology:
Linking biological tissues with electronic devices is challenging owing to the softness of tissues and their arbitrary shapes and sizes. An innovative water-responsive, supercontractile polymer film, inspired by spider silk, allows the construction of soft, stretchable and shape-adaptive tissue–electronic interfaces.
The military continues to have huge interest in the subject - note for DUAL PURPOSE APPLICATIONS - meaning as a supposed benefit to humans and a military weapon.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR) Global, in partnership with the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), is sponsoring the revolutionary work of Dr. Thomas Scheibel, professor for biomaterials and head of the Biomaterials Department at the University of Bayreuth, Germany.
Spun into fibers or printed as gels, they can be used to improve existing and develop new applications that could prove invaluable equally to the civilian population as well as for military applications. Examples include applications in medicine, such as scaffolds for bone regeneration; in optics and electronics, as biomimetic muscles for robotics; and as high-tech threads and textiles, as are needed for parachutes, bulletproof vests or mobile shelters.
Transdermal vaccines with silk protein delivery is backed by Gates: Vaxess
Vaxess Technologies is a venture capital and Gates Foundation-backed life science company developing novel vaccine formulations and delivery technologies based on its proprietary silk platform. We are committed to improving access to vaccines by enabling better, more stable vaccine products that can be easily delivered all over the world.
It does not escape me that all over the world may be aerosolized - via airplaine - which is why we are finding the spider silk in the environment? There is research about this:
Here, this work reports a new strategy to fabricate silk protein-based aerosols and silk fibers instantaneously in situ using a spray device, avoiding complicated and costly advanced manufacturing techniques. The key to success is the instantaneous conformational transition of silk fibroin from random coil to β-sheet right before spraying by mixing silk and polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions in the spray device, allowing aerosols and silk fibers to be sprayed, with further control achieved via the molecular weight of silk. The spinning process of the spray device is based on the use of green solvents, that is, all steps of instant conformational transition of silk fibroin are carried out in aqueous conditions or with buffers at ambient conditions, in combination with shear and elongational flow caused by the hydraulic pressure generated in the spray container.
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